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  • Description:
  • Initiation of rigid paralysis on or prior to E5 led to reversals and exaggerations of curvature, while paralysis from E4 led to significant alterations in curvatures in five discrete locations. (A) Overlays of curvatures in sagittal plane of control spines (blue, n = 21), and timed paralysis spines (E3–E9: red, n = 8; E4–E9: brown, n = 10; E5–E9: green, n = 9; E6–E9: purple, n = 8; E7–E9: gray, n = 6; E8–E9: mustard, n = 5). All spines aligned to thoracic vertebra 1 (T1). Regions of pronounced abnormal lordosis (green arrows) and kyphosis (purple stars) are highlighted. Scale Bars 2000 μm. P: posterior; A: Anterior. (B) GC analysis of each group. Y‐axis: 1/radius of curvature, represented by arbitrary units of length. GC > 0 lordotic curve, GC < 0 kyphotic curve, GC = 0 straight spine. X‐axis: the craniocaudal individual vertebrae. Significant differences in curvature were found in spines paralyzed from E4‐E9, * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01. C: cervical; T: thoracic; L: lumbar; S: sacral; Cd: caudal.
  • License:
  • Rights Managed
  • Rights Holder:
  • John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • License Rights Holder:
  • © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Asset Type:
  • Image
  • Asset Subtype:
  • Figure
  • Image Orientation:
  • Landscape
  • Image Dimensions:
  • 623 x 407
  • Image File Size:
  • 181 KB
  • Creator:
  • Rebecca A. Rolfe, James H. Bezer, Tyler Kim, Ahmed Z. Zaidon, Michelle L. Oyen, James C. Iatridis, Niamh C. Nowlan
  • Credit:
  • Rolfe, R. A., Bezer, J. H., Kim, T., Zaidon, A. Z., Oyen, M. L., Iatridis, J. C., & Nowlan, N. C. (2017). Abnormal fetal muscle forces result in defects in spinal curvature and alterations in vertebral segmentation and shape. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 35(10), 2135-2144..
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  • Property Release:
  • No
  • Model Release:
  • No
  • Purchasable:
  • Yes
  • Sensitive Materials:
  • No
  • Article Authors:
  • Rebecca A. Rolfe, James H. Bezer, Tyler Kim, Ahmed Z. Zaidon, Michelle L. Oyen, James C. Iatridis, Niamh C. Nowlan
  • Article Copyright Year:
  • 2017
  • Publication Volume:
  • 35
  • Publication Issue:
  • 10
  • Publication Date:
  • 10/01/2017
  • DOI:

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